Sludge characterization shows the chemical properties of the pulp and paper sludge.
The Column Leaching Study studied the leachability of pulp and paper sludge components added to soil, and evaluated the rate of sludge application and level of water addition of these components in soil columns.
The Sludge Degredation Study measured the decomposition rate of sludges from ANC, MW, and SLP as a function of waste type, soil type, temperature, and rates/frequency of application.
The Greenhouse Trials assessed the effect of applying different rates of sludge on soil and plants and determined the appropriate application rates for the field trials.
The Human Health Study was undertaken to determine the microbial populations in ANC, SLP and MW sludge that would not be incorporated, and to determine the persistence over time of indicator organisms.